Marinette, Wisconsin & Menominee, Michigan



Having a lack of clear behavior expectations, failure to supervise and monitor children, and inconsistent or severe and harsh punishment  are all examples of this risk factor.


Poor family management practices include having a lack of clear expectations for behavior; failure of parents to supervise and monitor their children (knowing where they are and who they’re with); and excessively severe, harsh or inconsistent punishment. Children exposed to these family management practices are at higher risk for substance abuse, delinquency, teen pregnancy, school dropout and violence. 

Questions asked to assess poor family management include: 

  • The rules in my family are clear.
  • My parents ask if I’ve gotten my homework done.
  • When I am not at home, one of my parents knows where I am and who I am with.
  • Would your parents know if you did not come home on time?
  • My family has clear rules about alcohol and drug use.
  • If you drank some beer or wine or hard liquor without your parent’s permission, would you be caught by your parents?
  • If you carried a handgun without your parent’s permission, would you be caught by your parents?
  • If you skipped school, would you be caught by your parents?


If youth believe that families and/or our community accepts drug and excessive alcohol use as normal and okay, they are more likely to start using these substances at an early age.

During the elementary years, children usually express anti-drug views. In middle school, as others they know participate in such activities, their attitudes may shift toward greater acceptance, placing them at higher risk. If youth believe that there is a favorable attitude toward drug use, they are more likely to start using which will increase other risk factors.

Questions asked to assess favorable attitudes toward drug use:

  • (Peer) How wrong do you think it is for someone your age to…
  • Drink beer, wine, or hard liquor regularly (at least once or twice a month)?
  • Smoke cigarettes?
  • Smoke marijuana?
  • Use LSD, cocaine, amphetamines, or another illegal drug?


Positive opportunities and participation for youth equals less poor behavior choices.


If youth are involved in community opportunities for pro-social involvement, rewards will go along with their participation and less poor behavior choices will be made. Ensuring that all youth have the opportunity to be involved regardless of money, transportation, family, and creating a system in place to sufficiently inform families of community events and opportunities are goals associated with this factor.

Questions asked to assess the opportunities in the community for pro-social involvement include: 

  • There are lots of adults in my neighborhood I could talk to about something important.
  • Which of the following activities for people your age is available in your community? (Sports teams, scouting, boys and girls clubs, 4-H clubs, service clubs)